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The supporting wall or pier that receives the thrust of an arch.


Granular material consisting of normal weight or lightweight particles used with a cementing medium to form concrete masonry, mortar or grout.


See American Institute of Architects

American Institute of Architects

The American Institute of Architects is the voice of the architecture profession dedicated to serving its members, advancing their value and improving the quality of the built environment.

American Society of Civil Engineers

A society working to represent civil engineers and provide quality information and resources on technical and professional issues.

American Society for Testing and Material

A global forum for the development of consensus standards.


Metal or strap usually made of brass, stainless steel or galvanized steel. Anchors are used to tie a wall (brick, block or stone) to another structure.

Anchor Bolts

Threaded bolt placed in grouted masonry unit opening. Used to fasten wood will, beam or other structural support to wall top.


Individual indenture (contracted) to a training program run by a Joint Apprenticeship and Training Committee (JATO) in the building trades.


A section of masonry work that spans an opening and supports not only its own weight, but also the weight of the masonry work above it.


See American Society of Civil Engineers


American Society for Testing and Material

Backer Rod

A flexible foam rod tubing either open or closed call used to maintain a constant joint design. It maintains two sided adhesion required for all proper sealant joints.

Basket Weave Bond

Module groups of brick laid at right angles to those adjacent.

Bat (Batt)

A piece of brick usually half the full size or smaller.


The bottom side of a brick or block as it has been laid in the wall.

Bed Joints

Horizontal mortar bed on which a masonry unit has been laid.

Beaded Joints

See Joints


The incline of one surface of the same body with the angle being other than a right angle.


See Brick Industry Association


Pattern of laid masonry units; adhesion between mortar and masonry units; tying together parts of two or more wythes of masonry walls by overlapping masonry units.

Bond Stone

Stone or masonry unit that projects back from the facing wall into a backup wall. Bond stone is designed to tie the two walls or wythes together. A bond stone may not project completely through the two walls or wythes.

Boot Rod (sled runner)

A tool used to finish joints - a longer jointer with a wood handle used for bed joints.


A molded rectangular block of clay baked by the sun or in a kiln until hard and used as a building and paving material.

Brick Buggies

Carts used to covey material (palletized or packaged) on scaffolds or building floors either hand or power driven.

Brick Industry Association

National trade association representing distributors and manufacturers of clay brick and suppliers of related products and services.

Brick Set/Bolster

A tool used for cutting brick. A brick set is beveled on one side and straight on the other.


Place mortar on a masonry unit with a trowel.


Refractory material in a hydraulic setting bind.

Caulk (caulking)

Sealing material, the process of sealing cracks around doors, windows and other cracks with a caulking gun.

Cavity Wall

A wall built in two wythes of masonry tied together with a continuous air space in between.

Cavity Wall Ties

Metal ties or bonding units used to tie together the wythes on a cavity wall.

Cell Clip

Cut brick piece or section.


Supplementary or short length used at corners or jambs to maintain bond patters.

Coarse Aggregate

Material predominantly retained on the No. 4 sieve.


Vertical support member.

Compressive Strength

Another term for dead or live loads, vertical forces on a masonry structure.

Concave Joint

A mortar joint tooled with a round jointer. See Joints.


A hard, strong construction material consisting of sand, conglomerate gravel, pebbles, broken stone, or slag in a mortar or cement matrix.

Control Joint

Vertical joint made in the wall to allow for shrinkage movement. Used to prevent random cracking of the wall caused by contraction. See also expansion joint.

Corrugated Wall Ties

Galvanized strips of metal cut 1 inch wide in varying lengths. Used in wall reinforcing.


High point or apex of curving arch.

Dead Load

A type of vertical force applied on a wall by the weight of the building.


Deviation from normal position or from zero.


The quality of being dense, close or compact.


A cylindrical piece of steel, either smooth or threaded used to hold stone in place. Dowels can be set in sealant, mortar or epoxy.


A projecting piece of material shaped to throw off water, prevent it from running down a wall or running back under a projection.

Dry Pressed Brick

Brick formed in molds under high pressure from relatively dry clay (5 to 7 percent moisture content).

Dry Saw

Dry cutting blade. If used without water can produce enormous amounts of dust.


A deposit of white powder on the surface of masonry which comes from the leaching of water soluble salts in the masonry by evaporation of water.


Ability of material to expand and contract.

Elliptical Arch

One of the strongest arches in brick masonry. It springs from a horizontal seat at and on the spring course, and the way its haunch crowns up adds to its strength.

Epoxy Mortar

Mortar of a thermosetting resins containing epoxy groups that are blended with other chemicals to form strong, hard chemically resistant mortar.


See Expanded Shale, Clay and Slate Institute

Expanded Shale, Clay and Slate (ESCS)

A ceramic lightweight aggregate prepared by expanding select minerals in a rotary kiln at temperatures over 1,000 (1,850 F).

Expanded Shale, Clay and Slate Institute

The international trade association for manufacturers of rotary kiln-produced expanded shale, expanded clay and expanded slate lightweight aggregate.

Expansion Joint

Vertical or horizontal joints used to separate masonry into segments to control cracking.

Extrude/Extrude Joints

To force clay through a die to give it shape - such as a brick. See Joints.


The exposed surface of a wall. Also the surface of a masonry unit to be exposed in finished work.


Metal band around the handle of the trowel at the shank end. Designed to protect the handle.

Fine Aggregate

Material that will almost entirely pass a No. 4 sieve, and be predominantly retained on the No. 200 sieve.

Flame Finish

The process of using a flame to pop off the surface of the stone face. This is performed only on granite and can be used both on interior and exterior stone.


Sheet metal or plastic placed in mortar joints and air spaces in masonry for protection against water seepage.

Flemish Bond

A bond consisting of headers and stretchers alternating in every course and laid so that they always break the joint.

Flemish Header

In a flemish bond, a header is placed in the middle of the stretchers in the courses above and below.

Flush Joint

See Joints


Small indentation cut into the mortar bed by a trowel to prepare the mortar bed for the brick.

Glazed Concrete Block

Ceramic or porcelainized glazes and/or mineral glazes used to face masonry units.

Gothic Arch

An arch with a rather high rise, with sides consisting of arcs of circles, the centers of which are at the level of the spring line. The Gothic arch is often referred to as a crop, equilateral, or lancet arch, depending upon whether the spacing of the centers are less than, equal to, or more than the clear span.


A predetermined percent of allowable imperfections for stone. Grades are used to create a scale to which stone can be sold and installed. Grade also limits the overall dimension that stone can be fabricated. The groups are granite-group A, marble-group B, marble-group C and marble-group D.


An igneous rock created deep within the earth. This rock is dense, difficult to create to final form, but is very durable.

Granular Insulation

A water-repellent or non-water absorbent fill material that pours readily into cores of masonry units or cavity type walls.


A cementitious component of highwater-cement ratio, permitting it to be poured into spaces within a masonry wall. Grout consists of Portland cement, lime and aggregate.

Hand Carts

Carts normally with two wheels which are used to manually handle or convey masonry units on the scaffold, building floors or around the project.

Head Joints

The vertical mortar joint between ends of masonry units. Often called cross joint.


Rear of the trowel blade.

Herringbone Pattern

A pattern of setting in which the units in a wall are laid aslant, instead of flat, with the direction of incline reversing in alternate courses, forming a zigzag effect. In floors of paving, the units are set at approximately a 45 degree angle with the boundary of the area being clad, alternate rows reversing direction to give a zigzag horizontal pattern, and the unit in one row filling the triangle between two units in the adjacent row.

High-lift Grouting

The technique of grouting masonry in lifts up to 12 feet.


Material used to prevent the passage or leakage of heat, sound, etc. Comes in the form of board, granular fill or foam.


An arrangement by means of which the functioning of one part is controlled by the functioning of another.

Jack Arch

Flat arch usually used for short spans.


Vertical sides of an opening such as the side of a door or window.


See Illustration


Craftsman or tradesman who has completed and passed an apprenticeship in a trade.


Oven for firing brick or tile.

Ladder-type Wall Reinforcing

A type of horizontal wall reinforcement. A reinforcement system.

Lateral Force

Force placed on a structure by wind or earth pressure pushing laterally against a wall.


A tool for determining, or adjusting a surface to an even horizontal plane.


Height of grout (or concrete) placed at one time from one pour.

Lightweight Aggregate

Aggregate of low density used to produce lightweight masonry, lightweight mortar, and lightweight grout, and includes expanded shale, clay, slate, and slag, pumice, volcanic cinders, scoria, tuff, and the end products of coal or coke combustion.


Formed below water and compacted this is a highly concentrated crystalline calcium carbonate (calcite) but also contains silica, alumina, iron oxide and magnesia.


Horizontal structural unit (beam) over an opening; support member over a door or window opening.

Live Loads

A type of vertical force, forces applied by the contents and occupants of a building.

Low-lift Grout

Grout must be placed into the walls after walls reach a certain height. Building of walls may continue only after grout is in place.


A metamorphic rock formed from limestone. This stone consists primarily of calcite and dolomite. Marble is a stone formed all over the world.


One who builds or works with stone or brick.

Mason Contractors Association of America

The national trade association representing masonry contractors and suppliers in national legislative and political affairs, codes and standards composition, workforce development, education, market promotion and general industry advocacy.


That which is built by a mason; anything constructed of the materials used by masons, such as stone, brick, tiles, or the like.


See Mason Contractors Association of America


See Masonry Institute of America

Masonry Institute of America

A promotion, technical and research organization established to improve and extend the use of masonry.

Masonry Standards Joint Committee

An organization composed of volunteers who through background, use, and education have acquired experience in the manufacture of masonry, or in the design and construction of masonry structures.

Material Safety Data Sheets

Documents describing the known hazards associated with a material.


A joint formed by fitting together two pieces beveled to a specific angle (usually 45 degrees) to form a corner.


Without joints.


See Material Safety Data Sheets


See Masonry Standards Joint Committee

National Concrete Masonry Association

Offers a variety of technical services and design aids through publications, computer programs, slide presentations and technical training.


See National Concrete Masonry Association

Normal Weight Aggregate

Material such as sand, gravel, slag, crushed stone, etc.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

A department of the U.S. Department of Labor to promulgate health and safety in the U.S. Establishes regulations and enforces such.


See Occupational Safety and Health Administration

Parabolic Arch

The strongest of all arches. It has a gradual oval shape.


Process of applying a coat of mortar to masonry construction, especially used for masonry walls. Also, the cement mortar coat itself.


See Portland Cement Association


A short masonry or concrete column supporting the foundations of the floor structure in spaces without a basement. Pier may be freestanding or bonded at its sides to other masonry or concrete. A masonry column used to support a garden wall. A freestanding column.


A pier or column forming part of a masonry or concrete wall, partially projecting from it and bonded to it. Designed to receive joist or beam load.


Used in interior stone installations to adhere the anchors in place as well as to fill butt jointed stone.


Refractory brick in a plastic-like moldable consistency.


Exactly vertical. Measured with a plumb line.


Tip of the trowel blade.


A mechanical method creating a glossy smooth finish on stone. Generally marbles and granites can be polished to expose the full grain and color of the piece.


A tough, clear, colorless plastic material.


Materials ability to absorb water having many small openings.

Portland Cement

Fine, grayish powder formed by burning limestone, clay or shale and then griding the resulting clinkers. The result is a cement which hardens under water and which is used as a base for all mortar. Portland cement is a grade of cement, not a brand.

Portland Cement Association

The Portland Cement Association represents cement companies in the United States and Canada through market development, engineering, research, education and public affairs programs.


A small assemblage made with masonry units and mortar and sometimes grout. Primarily used to predict the strength of full scale masonry members.


The process of settling or consolidating grout in a masonry reinforced wall to prevent the formation of voids.

Quarry Sap

The water present in block stone when removed from the ground. Quarry sap seasons out anywhere from sixty days to eight months, depending on the type of stone.


Large squared stone or brick set at the corner formed by two masonry walls. Projects out from the corner in some cases.

Racked Joint

See Joints


Laying or stepping back each higher masonry course.


Horizonal or vertical reinforcing bars used to reinforce a masonry structure.


Any non-metal material or object that can withstand high temperature without becoming soft.


To strengthen a structure by the addition of something to that structure.


A wide variety of natural minerals found in virgin form on or below the surface of the earth.

Roman Arch

A semicircular arch. If built of stone, all units are wedge-shaped.


A shorter jointer used for head joints.

Sample Panel

A test panel designed to 1) demonstrate the quality of materials and the kind of workmanship that will be used through-out the construction period or 2) be observed throughout construction of the job for any change or damage as a result of changes in weather conditions.


Generally quartz based, cemented together with a high percent of silica, sandstone also contains calcium, carbonate and iron compounds, this stone generally is formed without sediment grains.


Silicone, polyurethane or polysulphate based chemicals with elastomeric (elastic) characteristics used at various conditions in stone joints.

Segmental Arch

Similar to semi-circle arch. Segment of a circle.

Semi-Circle Arch

See Roman Arch


Connect the trowel blade to the trowel handle.


A white or colorless compound (SiO2) occurring as quartz, sand, flint, agate, and many other minerals.


Bottom of a window or door frame. Skew. To twist back or lean; to incline. Shoring Jacks. Support masonry lintels.

Sled Runner (Boot Rod)

A longer jointer with a wood handle used for bed joints.

Soft Mud Process

A brick manufacturing process using a soft brick soffit.


Distance between two supports.

Spring Line

For minor arches, the line where the skewback cuts the soffit. For major parabolic arches, the term commonly refers to the intersection of the arch axis with the skewback.

Stiff Mud Process

A process through which bricks are made.


A long cable that powers the mechanical vibrator used to consolidate grout.


Term used to discuss rock in a semi or finished form to be used in constructions or landscaping.

Struck Joint

See Joints

Structural Clay Tile

Hollow masonry building units composed of burned clay, shale, fire clay or mixtures thereof.


Tensile strength forces that separate the masonry unit from mortar.

Terra Cotta

A hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction.

The Masonry Society

An international gathering of people interested in the art and science of masonry.


See The Masonry Society


Temporary wall end where alternate stretchers project out. Projecting masonry units are called tooths.


A flat-bladed hand tool for leveling, spreading, or shaping substances such as cement or mortar.

Truss-Type Wall Reinforcing

A type of horizontal reinforcing systems made with diagonal cross rods through wall flashing.

Tutor Arch

A pointed, four-centered arch of medium rise-to-span ratio.

Vee Joints

See Joints

Veneer Ties

Used to anchor veneer to walls - comes in many styles or types.

Vertical Force

See dead or live loads.


One of the wedge-shaped masonry units which form the arch ring. An example is a brick in a jack arch.

Weathered Joint

See Joints

Weep Hole

Openings placed in mortar joints of facing material at the level of flashing, to permit the escape of moisture.

Wet Saw

A wet cutting diamond blade. Used on a saw that has a continual water pump supply on the blade keeping the blade clean and cool.


The process used to mine raw materials used for manufacturing brick.


Vertical wall or tier of masonry units one-unit thick. The thickness of masonry separating flues in a chimney. Also called a withe or tier.


A wall tie made with a 90 degree angle and a 2-inch leg on each side.