The supporting wall or pier that receives the thrust of an arch.
Granular material consisting of normal weight or lightweight
particles used with a cementing medium to form concrete masonry, mortar
See American Institute of Architects
American Institute of Architects
The American Institute of Architects is the voice of the
architecture profession dedicated to serving its members, advancing
their value and improving the quality of the built environment.
American Society of Civil Engineers
A society working to represent civil engineers and provide quality
information and resources on technical and professional issues.
American Society for Testing and Material
A global forum for the development of consensus standards.
Metal or strap usually made of brass, stainless steel or galvanized
steel. Anchors are used to tie a wall (brick, block or stone) to another
Threaded bolt placed in grouted masonry unit opening. Used to fasten
wood will, beam or other structural support to wall top.
Individual indenture (contracted) to a training program run by a
Joint Apprenticeship and Training Committee (JATO) in the building
A section of masonry work that spans an opening and supports not
only its own weight, but also the weight of the masonry work above it.
See American Society of Civil Engineers
American Society for Testing and Material
A flexible foam rod tubing either open or closed call used to
maintain a constant joint design. It maintains two sided adhesion
required for all proper sealant joints.
Basket Weave Bond
Module groups of brick laid at right angles to those adjacent.
A piece of brick usually half the full size or smaller.
The bottom side of a brick or block as it has been laid in the wall.
Horizontal mortar bed on which a masonry unit has been laid.
The incline of one surface of the same body with the angle being other than a right angle.
See Brick Industry Association
Pattern of laid masonry units; adhesion between mortar and masonry
units; tying together parts of two or more wythes of masonry walls by
overlapping masonry units.
Stone or masonry unit that projects back from the facing wall into a
backup wall. Bond stone is designed to tie the two walls or wythes
together. A bond stone may not project completely through the two walls
Boot Rod (sled runner)
A tool used to finish joints - a longer jointer with a wood handle used for bed joints.
A molded rectangular block of clay baked by the sun or in a kiln until hard and used as a building and paving material.
Carts used to covey material (palletized or packaged) on scaffolds or building floors either hand or power driven.
Brick Industry Association
National trade association representing distributors and
manufacturers of clay brick and suppliers of related products and
A tool used for cutting brick. A brick set is beveled on one side and straight on the other.
Place mortar on a masonry unit with a trowel.
Refractory material in a hydraulic setting bind.
Sealing material, the process of sealing cracks around doors, windows and other cracks with a caulking gun.
A wall built in two wythes of masonry tied together with a continuous air space in between.
Cavity Wall Ties
Metal ties or bonding units used to tie together the wythes on a cavity wall.
Cut brick piece or section.
Supplementary or short length used at corners or jambs to maintain bond patters.
Material predominantly retained on the No. 4 sieve.
Vertical support member.
Another term for dead or live loads, vertical forces on a masonry structure.
A mortar joint tooled with a round jointer. See Joints.
A hard, strong construction material consisting of sand,
conglomerate gravel, pebbles, broken stone, or slag in a mortar or
Vertical joint made in the wall to allow for shrinkage movement.
Used to prevent random cracking of the wall caused by contraction. See
also expansion joint.
Corrugated Wall Ties
Galvanized strips of metal cut 1 inch wide in varying lengths. Used in wall reinforcing.
High point or apex of curving arch.
A type of vertical force applied on a wall by the weight of the building.
Deviation from normal position or from zero.
The quality of being dense, close or compact.
A cylindrical piece of steel, either smooth or threaded used to hold
stone in place. Dowels can be set in sealant, mortar or epoxy.
A projecting piece of material shaped to throw off water, prevent it
from running down a wall or running back under a projection.
Dry Pressed Brick
Brick formed in molds under high pressure from relatively dry clay (5 to 7 percent moisture content).
Dry cutting blade. If used without water can produce enormous amounts of dust.
A deposit of white powder on the surface of masonry which comes from
the leaching of water soluble salts in the masonry by evaporation of
Ability of material to expand and contract.
One of the strongest arches in brick masonry. It springs from a
horizontal seat at and on the spring course, and the way its haunch
crowns up adds to its strength.
Mortar of a thermosetting resins containing epoxy groups that are
blended with other chemicals to form strong, hard chemically resistant
See Expanded Shale, Clay and Slate Institute
Expanded Shale, Clay and Slate (ESCS)
A ceramic lightweight aggregate prepared by expanding select
minerals in a rotary kiln at temperatures over 1,000° (1,850° F).
Expanded Shale, Clay and Slate Institute
The international trade association for manufacturers of rotary
kiln-produced expanded shale, expanded clay and expanded slate
Vertical or horizontal joints used to separate masonry into segments to control cracking.
To force clay through a die to give it shape - such as a brick. See Joints.
The exposed surface of a wall. Also the surface of a masonry unit to be exposed in finished work.
Metal band around the handle of the trowel at the shank end. Designed to protect the handle.
Material that will almost entirely pass a No. 4 sieve, and be predominantly retained on the No. 200 sieve.
The process of using a flame to pop off the surface of the stone
face. This is performed only on granite and can be used both on interior
and exterior stone.
Sheet metal or plastic placed in mortar joints and air spaces in masonry for protection against water seepage.
A bond consisting of headers and stretchers alternating in every course and laid so that they always break the joint.
In a flemish bond, a header is placed in the middle of the stretchers in the courses above and below.
Small indentation cut into the mortar bed by a trowel to prepare the mortar bed for the brick.
Glazed Concrete Block
Ceramic or porcelainized glazes and/or mineral glazes used to face masonry units.
An arch with a rather high rise, with sides consisting of arcs of
circles, the centers of which are at the level of the spring line. The
Gothic arch is often referred to as a crop, equilateral, or lancet arch,
depending upon whether the spacing of the centers are less than, equal
to, or more than the clear span.
A predetermined percent of allowable imperfections for stone. Grades
are used to create a scale to which stone can be sold and installed.
Grade also limits the overall dimension that stone can be fabricated.
The groups are granite-group A, marble-group B, marble-group C and
An igneous rock created deep within the earth. This rock is dense, difficult to create to final form, but is very durable.
A water-repellent or non-water absorbent fill material that pours readily into cores of masonry units or cavity type walls.
A cementitious component of highwater-cement ratio, permitting it to
be poured into spaces within a masonry wall. Grout consists of Portland
cement, lime and aggregate.
Carts normally with two wheels which are used to manually handle or
convey masonry units on the scaffold, building floors or around the
The vertical mortar joint between ends of masonry units. Often called cross joint.
Rear of the trowel blade.
A pattern of setting in which the units in a wall are laid aslant,
instead of flat, with the direction of incline reversing in alternate
courses, forming a zigzag effect. In floors of paving, the units are set
at approximately a 45 degree angle with the boundary of the area being
clad, alternate rows reversing direction to give a zigzag horizontal
pattern, and the unit in one row filling the triangle between two units
in the adjacent row.
The technique of grouting masonry in lifts up to 12 feet.
Material used to prevent the passage or leakage of heat, sound, etc. Comes in the form of board, granular fill or foam.
An arrangement by means of which the functioning of one part is controlled by the functioning of another.
Flat arch usually used for short spans.
Vertical sides of an opening such as the side of a door or window.
Craftsman or tradesman who has completed and passed an apprenticeship in a trade.
Oven for firing brick or tile.
Ladder-type Wall Reinforcing
A type of horizontal wall reinforcement. A reinforcement system.
Force placed on a structure by wind or earth pressure pushing laterally against a wall.
A tool for determining, or adjusting a surface to an even horizontal plane.
Height of grout (or concrete) placed at one time from one pour.
Aggregate of low density used to produce lightweight masonry,
lightweight mortar, and lightweight grout, and includes expanded shale,
clay, slate, and slag, pumice, volcanic cinders, scoria, tuff, and the
end products of coal or coke combustion.
Formed below water and compacted this is a highly concentrated
crystalline calcium carbonate (calcite) but also contains silica,
alumina, iron oxide and magnesia.
Horizontal structural unit (beam) over an opening; support member over a door or window opening.
A type of vertical force, forces applied by the contents and occupants of a building.
Grout must be placed into the walls after walls reach a certain
height. Building of walls may continue only after grout is in place.
A metamorphic rock formed from limestone. This stone consists
primarily of calcite and dolomite. Marble is a stone formed all over the
One who builds or works with stone or brick.
Mason Contractors Association of America
The national trade association representing masonry contractors and
suppliers in national legislative and political affairs, codes and
standards composition, workforce development, education, market
promotion and general industry advocacy.
That which is built by a mason; anything constructed of the
materials used by masons, such as stone, brick, tiles, or the like.
See Mason Contractors Association of America
See Masonry Institute of America
Masonry Institute of America
A promotion, technical and research organization established to improve and extend the use of masonry.
Masonry Standards Joint Committee
An organization composed of volunteers who through background, use,
and education have acquired experience in the manufacture of masonry, or
in the design and construction of masonry structures.
Material Safety Data Sheets
Documents describing the known hazards associated with a material.
A joint formed by fitting together two pieces beveled to a specific angle (usually 45 degrees) to form a corner.
See Material Safety Data Sheets
See Masonry Standards Joint Committee
National Concrete Masonry Association
Offers a variety of technical services and design aids through
publications, computer programs, slide presentations and technical
See National Concrete Masonry Association
Normal Weight Aggregate
Material such as sand, gravel, slag, crushed stone, etc.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
A department of the U.S. Department of Labor to promulgate health
and safety in the U.S. Establishes regulations and enforces such.
See Occupational Safety and Health Administration
The strongest of all arches. It has a gradual oval shape.
Process of applying a coat of mortar to masonry construction,
especially used for masonry walls. Also, the cement mortar coat itself.
See Portland Cement Association
A short masonry or concrete column supporting the foundations of the
floor structure in spaces without a basement. Pier may be freestanding
or bonded at its sides to other masonry or concrete. A masonry column
used to support a garden wall. A freestanding column.
A pier or column forming part of a masonry or concrete wall,
partially projecting from it and bonded to it. Designed to receive joist
or beam load.
Used in interior stone installations to adhere the anchors in place as well as to fill butt jointed stone.
Refractory brick in a plastic-like moldable consistency.
Exactly vertical. Measured with a plumb line.
Tip of the trowel blade.
A mechanical method creating a glossy smooth finish on stone.
Generally marbles and granites can be polished to expose the full grain
and color of the piece.
A tough, clear, colorless plastic material.
Materials ability to absorb water having many small openings.
Fine, grayish powder formed by burning limestone, clay or shale and
then griding the resulting clinkers. The result is a cement which
hardens under water and which is used as a base for all mortar. Portland
cement is a grade of cement, not a brand.
Portland Cement Association
The Portland Cement Association represents cement companies in the
United States and Canada through market development, engineering,
research, education and public affairs programs.
A small assemblage made with masonry units and mortar and sometimes
grout. Primarily used to predict the strength of full scale masonry
The process of settling or consolidating grout in a masonry reinforced wall to prevent the formation of voids.
The water present in block stone when removed from the ground.
Quarry sap seasons out anywhere from sixty days to eight months,
depending on the type of stone.
Large squared stone or brick set at the corner formed by two masonry walls. Projects out from the corner in some cases.
Laying or stepping back each higher masonry course.
Horizonal or vertical reinforcing bars used to reinforce a masonry structure.
Any non-metal material or object that can withstand high temperature without becoming soft.
To strengthen a structure by the addition of something to that structure.
A wide variety of natural minerals found in virgin form on or below the surface of the earth.
A semicircular arch. If built of stone, all units are wedge-shaped.
A shorter jointer used for head joints.
A test panel designed to 1) demonstrate the quality of materials and
the kind of workmanship that will be used through-out the construction
period or 2) be observed throughout construction of the job for any
change or damage as a result of changes in weather conditions.
Generally quartz based, cemented together with a high percent of
silica, sandstone also contains calcium, carbonate and iron compounds,
this stone generally is formed without sediment grains.
Silicone, polyurethane or polysulphate based chemicals with
elastomeric (elastic) characteristics used at various conditions in
Similar to semi-circle arch. Segment of a circle.
See Roman Arch
Connect the trowel blade to the trowel handle.
A white or colorless compound (SiO2) occurring as quartz, sand, flint, agate, and many other minerals.
Bottom of a window or door frame. Skew. To twist back or lean; to incline. Shoring Jacks. Support masonry lintels.
Sled Runner (Boot Rod)
A longer jointer with a wood handle used for bed joints.
Soft Mud Process
A brick manufacturing process using a soft brick soffit.
Distance between two supports.
For minor arches, the line where the skewback cuts the soffit. For
major parabolic arches, the term commonly refers to the intersection of
the arch axis with the skewback.
Stiff Mud Process
A process through which bricks are made.
A long cable that powers the mechanical vibrator used to consolidate grout.
Term used to discuss rock in a semi or finished form to be used in constructions or landscaping.
Structural Clay Tile
Hollow masonry building units composed of burned clay, shale, fire clay or mixtures thereof.
Tensile strength forces that separate the masonry unit from mortar.
A hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction.
The Masonry Society
An international gathering of people interested in the art and science of masonry.
See The Masonry Society
Temporary wall end where alternate stretchers project out. Projecting masonry units are called tooths.
A flat-bladed hand tool for leveling, spreading, or shaping substances such as cement or mortar.
Truss-Type Wall Reinforcing
A type of horizontal reinforcing systems made with diagonal cross rods through wall flashing.
A pointed, four-centered arch of medium rise-to-span ratio.
Used to anchor veneer to walls - comes in many styles or types.
See dead or live loads.
One of the wedge-shaped masonry units which form the arch ring. An example is a brick in a jack arch.
Openings placed in mortar joints of facing material at the level of flashing, to permit the escape of moisture.
A wet cutting diamond blade. Used on a saw that has a continual
water pump supply on the blade keeping the blade clean and cool.
The process used to mine raw materials used for manufacturing brick.
Vertical wall or tier of masonry units one-unit thick. The thickness
of masonry separating flues in a chimney. Also called a withe or tier.
A wall tie made with a 90 degree angle and a 2-inch leg on each side.